Environment Variables(.env)

Using Environment variables important to keep your private information secure. Next.js comes with built-in support for environment variables.

superplate has a plugin to generate those files for different environments automatically.

.env.local#

Next.js has built-in support for loading environment variables from .env.local into process.env.

.env.local
DB_HOST_URL=localhost
DB_USER=user
DB_PASS=password

This loads process.env.DB_HOST_URL, process.env.DB_USER, and process.env.DB_PASS into the Node.js environment automatically.

pages/index.tsx
export async function getServerSideProps() {
const db = await myDB.connect({
host: process.env.DB_HOST_URL,
username: process.env.DB_USER,
password: process.env.DB_PASS,
})
// ...
}

.env.development#

Next.js allows us to set defaults in .env (all environments), .env.development (development environment) and .env.production (production environment).

.env.development
# DO NOT ADD SECRETS TO THIS FILE. This is a good place for defaults.
# If you want to add secrets use `.env.development.local` instead.
DEVELOPMENT_ENV_VARIABLE="server_only_development_variable"
NEXT_PUBLIC_DEVELOPMENT_ENV_VARIABLE="public_development_variable"
important

In order to expose a variable to the browser you have to prefix the variable with NEXT_PUBLIC_.

.env.production#

.env.production
# DO NOT ADD SECRETS TO THIS FILE. This is a good place for defaults.
# If you want to add secrets use `.env.production.local` instead.
PRODUCTION_ENV_VARIABLE="server_only_production_variable"
NEXT_PUBLIC_PRODUCTION_ENV_VARIABLE="public_production_variable"
components/envExample.tsx
import React from "react";
import styles from "./index.module.css";
export const EnvExample: React.FC = () => {
console.log(process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_ENV_VARIABLE);
console.log(process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_DEVELOPMENT_ENV_VARIABLE);
console.log(process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_PRODUCTION_ENV_VARIABLE);
};

.env.test#

In the same way you can set defaults for development or production environments, you can do the same with .env.test file for testing environment

.env.test
# USE THIS FILE IF YOU WANT TO DEFINE VARIABLES SPECIFIC TO TEST ENVIRONMENT
ENV_TEST_VARIABLE="test_variable"
tip

.env.test is useful when running tests with tools like jest or cypress where you need to set specific environment variables only for testing.

Refer to official documentation for detailed usage →

Last updated on by Necati Özmen